Part Three of a Series on N=4 Super Yang-Mills Theory
This is the third in a series of articles that will explain N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. In this series I take that phrase apart bit by bit, explaining as I go. Because I’m perverse and out to confuse you, I started with the last bit here, and now I’m working my way up.
N=4 Super Yang-Mills Theory
Ah, supersymmetry…trendy, sexy, mysterious…an excuse to put “super” in front of words…it’s a grand subject.
If I’m going to manage to explain supersymmetry at all, then I need to explain spin. Luckily, you don’t need to know much about spin for this to work. While I could start telling you about how particles literally spin around like tops despite having a radius of zero, and how quantum mechanics restricts how fast they spin to a few particular values measured by Planck’s constant…all you really need to know is the following:
Spin is a way to categorize particles.
In particular, there are:
Spin 1: Yang-Mills fields are spin 1, carrying forces with a direction and strength.
Spin ½: This spin covers pretty much all of the particles you encounter in everyday matter: electrons, neutrons, and protons, as well as more exotic stuff like neutrinos. If you want to make large-scale, interesting structures like rocks or lifeforms you pretty much need spin ½ particles.
Spin 0: A spin zero field (also called a scalar) is a number, like a temperature, that can vary from place to place. The Higgs field is an example of a spin zero field, where the number is part of the mass of other particles, and the Higgs boson is a ripple in that field, like a cold snap would be for temperature.
While they aren’t important for this post, you can also have higher numbers for spin: gravity has spin 2, for example.
With this definition in hand, we can start talking about supersymmetry, which is also pretty straightforward if you ignore all of the actual details.
Supersymmetry is a relationship (or symmetry) between particles with spin X, and particles with spin X-½
For example, you could have a relationship between a spin 1 Yang-Mills field and a spin ½ matter particle, or between a spin ½ matter particle and a spin 0 scalar.
“Relationship” is a vague term here, much like it is in romance, and just like in romance you’d do well to clarify precisely what you mean by it. Here, it means something like the following: if you switch a particle for its “superpartner” (the other particle in the relationship) then the physics should remain the same. This has two important consequences: superpartners have the same mass as each-other and superpartners have the same interactions as each-other.
The second consequence means that if a particle has electric charge -1, its superpartner also has electric charge -1. If you’ve got gluons, each with a color and an anti-color, then their superpartners will also have both a color and an anti-color. Astute readers will have remembered that quarks just have a color or an anti-color, and realized the implication: quarks cannot be the superpartners of gluons.
Other, even more well-informed readers will be wondering about the first consequence. Such readers might have heard that the LHC is looking for superpartners, or that superpartners could explain dark matter, and that in either case superpartners have very high mass. How can this be if superpartners have to have the same mass as their partners among the regular particles?
The important point to make here is that our real world is not supersymmetric, even if superpartners are discovered at the LHC, because supersymmetry is broken. In physics, when a symmetry of any sort is broken it’s like a broken mirror: it no longer is the same on each side, but the two sides are still related in a systematic way. Broken supersymmetry means that particles that would be superpartners can have different masses, but they will still have the same interactions.
When people look for supersymmetry at the LHC, they’re looking for new particles with the same interactions as the old particles, but generally much higher mass. When I talk about supersymmetry, though, I’m talking about unbroken supersymmetry: pairs of particles with the same interactions and the same mass. And N=4 super Yang-Mills is full of them.
How full? N=4 full. And that’s next week’s topic.