Cabinet of Curiosities: The Train-Ladder

I’ve got a new paper out this week, with Andrew McLeod, Roger Morales, Matthias Wilhelm, and Chi Zhang. It’s yet another entry in this year’s “cabinet of curiosities”, quirky Feynman diagrams with interesting traits.

A while back, I talked about a set of Feynman diagrams I could compute with any number of “loops”, bypassing the approximations we usually need to use in particle physics. That wasn’t the first time someone did that. Back in the 90’s, some folks figured out how to do this for so-called “ladder” diagrams. These diagrams have two legs on one end for two particles coming in, two legs on the other end for two particles going out, and a ladder in between, like so:

There are infinitely many of these diagrams, but they’re all beautifully simple, variations on a theme that can be written down in a precise mathematical way.

Change things a little bit, though, and the situation gets wildly more intractable. Let the rungs of the ladder peek through the sides, and you get something looking more like the tracks for a train:

These traintrack integrals are much more complicated. Describing them requires the mathematics of Calabi-Yau manifolds, involving higher and higher dimensions as the tracks get longer. I don’t think there’s any hope of understanding these things for all loops, at least not any time soon.

What if we aimed somewhere in between? A ladder that just started to turn traintrack?

Add just a single pair of rungs, and it turns out that things remain relatively simple. If we do this, it turns out we don’t need any complicated Calabi-Yau manifolds. We just need the simplest Calabi-Yau manifold, called an elliptic curve. It’s actually the same curve for every version of the diagram. And the situation is simple enough that, with some extra cleverness, it looks like we’ve found a trick to calculate these diagrams to any number of loops we’d like.

(Another group figured out the curve, but not the calculation trick. They’ve solved different problems, though, studying all sorts of different traintrack diagrams. They sorted out some confusion I used to have about one of those diagrams, showing it actually behaves precisely the way we expected it to. All in all, it’s been a fun example of the way different scientists sometimes hone in on the same discovery.)

These developments are exciting, because Feynman diagrams with elliptic curves are still tough to deal with. We still have whole conferences about them. These new elliptic diagrams can be a long list of test cases, things we can experiment with with any number of loops. With time, we might truly understand them as well as the ladder diagrams!

2 thoughts on “Cabinet of Curiosities: The Train-Ladder

  1. ohwilleke

    I would love to hear from you sometime a detailed description of the mechanics of how you and your co-authors conduct the process of collaborating to write a paper like this one while at different institutions, and how you end up starting the process to co-authoring a paper at all.

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    1. 4gravitons Post author

      In this case, Andrew suggested the idea while he was visiting and the rest followed suit. And in general the mechanics of collaborating on papers tend to involve either git or overleaf. 😉

      But yeah, probably worth a longer post at some point!

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